Ebola Virus is a type of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) virus that causes EBOLA hemorrhagic fever. It is highly contagious and is often fatal in humans and some primates, like monkeys and gorillas. Ebola is transmitted through direct contact with the bodily fluids of someone who is infected. Ebola virus is a member of a RNA virus’s family called the Filoviridae.
There are four identified subtypes of Ebola virus. Three of the four have caused disease in humans:
* Ebola - Zaire
* Ebola - sudan
* Ebola - Ivory coast
The fourth, Ebola-Reston has caused disease in nonhuman primates.
Causes of Ebola Virus:
ØEbola is caused by a virus
ØCauses a severe illness, with bleedingØUp to 90% will die
ØNo vaccine and no treatment are available ØMany people can quickly become infected
How does it spread?
Researchers believe that the first human who contracts Ebola gets the virus from an animal. Then the virus can spread from human to human. Spreading usually occurs in the latter stages of the disease.
ØSick people can spread this disease to others
ØPeople in direct contact with sick people are at highest risk:
· Family Members
· Healthcare workers
ØContact with Dead bodies can cause infection. BE CAREFUL
Outbreaks of Ebola Virus:
Since it spreads through direct contact, it can occur even after death, as people who prepare the body for burial can become infected. Without proper protection, it can also spread in hospitals, especially if needles or syringes are used without being sterilized between uses. The incubation period (time between infection and appearance of symptoms) for Ebola is from 2-21 days. During that time it is multiplying in the body, and the person will have no symptoms.
Symptoms of Ebola Virus:
Ebola Virus is a severe acute viral illness often characterized by the sudden onset of
* High Fever
* joint and muscle aches
* sore throat
* weakness / Tiredeness
* stomach and pain
* lack of appetite
As the disease gets worse, it causes bleeding inside the body,
as well as from the eyes, ears, and nose. Some people will vomit or cough up blood, have bloody diarrhoea, and get a rash.
ØNo licensed vaccine for Ebola virus is available. Several vaccines are being tested, but none are available for clinical use.
ØSeverely ill patients require intensive supportive care. Patients are frequently dehydrated and
require oral rehydration with solutions containing electrolytes or intravenous fluids.
No specific treatment is available. Treatment is primarily supportive in nature and includes minimizing invasive procedures, balancing fluids and electrolytes to counter dehydration, administration of anticoagulants early in infection to prevent or control disseminated intravascular coagulation, administration of procoagulants late in infection to control bleeding, maintaining oxygen levels, pain management and the use of medications to treat bacterial or fungal secondary infection. Early treatment may increase the chance of survival. A number of experimental treatments are being studied.
Preventive measures for Ebola Virus:
ØMaintain safe distance from the person who is sick or dead by which the Ebola virus can be spread.
ØCasual contacts in public places with people that do not appear to be sick do not transmit Ebola. One cannot contract Ebola virus by handling money, groceries or swimming in a pool. Mosquitoes do not transmit the Ebola virus.
ØEbola virus is easily killed by soap, bleach, sunlight, or drying. Ebola virus survives only a short time on surfaces that have dried in the sun.
ØEnsure your hands cleaned with hand wash / soap before you intake any food stuffs.
ØDo not touch an infected person or their body fluids, including blood, Vomit, faeces, Urine etc.
ØDo not touch or eat bush meat & bat’s
ØBe especially careful of your vomit and diarrhoea
ØAdvice of the doctor should be taken into consideration. You may be sent to a special hospital,
Medical care should be taken immediately, if find any symptoms.
“Prevention is better than cure”