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Wednesday, 21 September 2016

Safety in material handling

Safety in material handling




Objective



A fact


Mechanical Material Handling


Mechanical accessories for Material Handling


Material Handling Equipement


Rope


Synthetic Fiber Rope


Benefit of fiber or Synthetic Rope


Fiber Rope


Care while handling & Storing of fiber / Synthetic Rope


Inspection of synthetic Rope


Inspection of synthetic Rope


Self inspection Guidelines


Self inspection Guidelines


Wire Rope


Type of Lay


Inspection of wire rope


The rope wire must be replaced if


Maintanance


The way to fix the splicing clamps


Slings


Materials to be handled


Reinforcement Bars


Reinforcement Bars


Finishing activities


Manual Material Handling


Hazards related to material handling


Factor affecting MMH


Spine


Team working


Lifting of Material


Lifting of Material


Lifting of Material


Manual Material Lifting


Safe Lifting


Handling cylinders


Handling cylinders


Handling cylinders


Handling sheet materials


Guidelines for shovelling


Guidelines for shovelling


Guidelines for digging


Lifting heavy bags


Lowering heavy bags


Lifting Bulky Sacks


Handling materials without Handles


Lifting & carrying long objects as a Team


Handling materials using trolley


Using Mechanical Aids - Levers


Using Mechanical Aids - Levers


Using Mechanical Aids - Levers


Work Place layout


Avoid twisting with load


Operating Power Tools


Setting up a storage Area


Storing Materials


Handling Drums & Barrels


Handholds on load


Handholds on load


What regulations says?


Lifting Gears


Register of periodical test, examination and certificate


Thank you






Welcome to
Safety in Material Handling


A  Fact

ACCIDENT IN INDUSTRIES DUE TO MATERIAL HANDLING IS

60%

Mechanical Material Handling


Handling with mechanical accessories;
Materials handling equipment;

Mechanical Accessories for Material Handling


Ropes
Slings
Chains
D Shackles
Pulley Block
Chain Pulley Block

Material Handling Equipment


Cranes
Fork Lift
Tower Cranes
Hoist & Lifts
Bucket Elevator
Conveyors, etc.

Rope


Synthetic & Fiber Rope
Metallic Wire Rope

Synthetic Fiber Rope

Benefit Of Fiber or Synthetic Rope


Easy to Handle & Light Weight
No effect due to Humidity and corrosion
Minimum twisting effect during lifting
More Crushing resistance
No crushing effect or mark over load
Easy to make knot

Draw-Backs

It should not be used on very hot surfaces and in atmosphere of hot area, spray, fumes, mist of caustic liquid areas..

Fiber Rope


1st class manila rope is a plant fiber rope which is used for rigging. 
Nylon rope is a strong rope which has more rubbing resistance. It can take  more shock load.
Polypropylene rope cheapest. And generally less effect of humidity, acid, alkali, oil, grease and other chemical.

Care while handling & storing of
Fiber / Synthetic Rope



It should not be rubbed over, sandy & dusty surface.
It should not be used at sharp edge .
It should be kept away from corrosive chemicals & hot surfaces.
If it becomes wet, it should be dried before storing.
It is better to roll in big circle and keep in hanging condition.

Shall be maintained away from the sparks and other fire sources.


Inspection of Synthetic Rope


If the damage of rope is more then 5%, It should be removed from rigging use.
Dust in side the strands
There should not be any spiral in string.
If manila rope is dried and it’s fibers are became brittle.

Inspection of Synthetic Rope

Effect of acid, alkali or any other chemical.
For internal inspection rope  strings to be opened little and to be checked following condition.
No damage of inner fiber
the inner surface of rope should shine as new.
If any dust particles like wood are found in-side the rope it means rope got rubbed inside. In all above condition the rope should be removed from use.

Self Inspection Guidelines:

  Careful and frequent inspection of rope and a log of the length of time and conditions of use reflect prudent safety management.
  Damaged ropes are dangerous. General - for all ropes
Bulk of surface yarns or strands reduced by 50% or more for a linear distance equal to 4d or more.
Cut strands, yarns or filaments.
Diameter reduced by 5% over new.
Exposure to excess temperature as specified for type of fiber.
Burns or melting visible for a length of over four rope diameters.


Self Inspection Guidelines:


Abrasion on inside radius of eye.
Rust on nylon. (Try cleaning)
Oil and grease. (Try cleaning)
Heavy surface fuzz progressive.
Rope used on or with sheaves, bollards, chocks or fairleads where the bending radius is less than 8 to 1.
For internal inspection rope  strings to be opened little and to be checked following condition.
No damage of inner fiber
the inner surface of rope should shine as new.
If any dust particles like wood are found in-side the rope it means rope got rubbed inside. In all above condition the rope should be removed from use.

Wire Rope

There are three main factor to check the construction of wire rope.
The number of wire in each strand.
The number of strands in rope
The direction in which the wire and strands spiral or lay in the  rope.
 
Wire are denoted as the 6X7 or 6X19 to denote the type of core. 6X7 means, the rope has 6 strand and 7 wires in each strand.

Type of Lay


When the wires and strands spiral in opposite direction, it is called as Ordinary lay and if the direction are same it is called as Lang's lay.
In both Ordinary and Lang’s lay, when the stand spiral to the left, it is left hand lay and when the spiral is right, it is right hand lay.
To avoid twist and rotation in load, Non Rotating rope are made. In this construction the Both the lang’s lay and Ordinary lay are used. If the inner rope is left hand lang’s lay the outer covering rope will be in the right hand ordinary lay.

Inspection of wire rope


Wire rope should be inspected periodically to decide
Where the rope condition present any possible failure.
Where the rope will be safe until the next inspection.
While taking out rope from new roll , it should be make sure the no damage to outer ropes.
If the the rope is stored more then the three month, then also wire should be inspected  before putting in use.


The rope wire must be replaced if


Broken wire more then 5% or more.
Three or more broken wire in one rope lay.
One or more broken wires near the attached fitting.
Any evidence of wire beaks in valleys between the strands.
Wear .
Wire rope must be replaced if the diameter of the rope reduced by more then
1 mm for up to 19 mm diameter rope.
1.5 mm for diameter of 22-28 mm rope.
2 mm for rope more then 28 mm diameter rope.


Maintenance
Correct lubrication of wire rope is necessary to ensure long life and good service.

The wire should be kept in properly rolled condition to avoid kinking and other damage.

The way to fix the splicing clamps

The U bolt should be fixed at the dead or short end of the wire rope while making eye.

Slings
Sling required more attention than wire ropes, since they are more likely to be subjected to severe wear , abrasion, impact loading, crushing, kinking and over loading.
Safe loading capacity get decrease in case of different loading angle and methods.   


Materials to be Handled 

Reinforcement bars;
Finishing activities;
Hot mix asphalt ;


Reinforcement Bars

By Truck; 
Projection not more than 1 m;
With sufficient illumination and reflection;
Workers shall not allowed in trailers;
By Tower crane; 
Weight of the reinforcement bars calculated; 
Steel Grips to prevent fall of loose materials;
No uneven lengths;
Sling angle not less than 450


Reinforcement Bars

Manually;   
Lean hours shall be selected;
Proper illumination shall be selected;
Unity in command shall be maintained, if shifted in gangs;
Shifting re –bars through stair case shall be avoided;


Finishing Activities

Solid blocks manually;
Head load shall not be more than;
30 kgs for female workers;
55 kgs for male workers;
(AP Factories Rules, 1950)
Safety shoe with steel toe;
Shifting passage shall be barricaded;
Lime based powders;
nose mask shall be provided for related workers;
Dust evolution shall be controlled by suitable means;

Manual Material Handling

Hazards related to Material Handling

Immediate (or) Short term hazards:
Accidental Injuries caused by
sharp edges, rough surfaces, falling of objects, slip & fell in same level
Fatigue
Sprains & Fractures.
Long term hazards
Chronic Back Pain caused by
Repetitive sprains, Cramps, Tear of tendons connecting back Muscles to spine


Factors affecting MMH

Weight of the load lifted.
Range of lift.
Location of load in relation to body size & shape of load.
Number & frequency of lifts performed.
Excessive bending & twisting.

Spine

Team Working

One person could pull  -    63 Kg   

Two person could pull  -  118 Kg   not  126 Kg

Three person could pull  -  160 Kg   not  189 Kg

Eight person could pull  -  248 Kg   not  504 Kg

LIFTING OF MATERIAL

Safe Lifting

Lever effect -- can magnify weight by factor of up to 10

Handling Cylinders

Use Cylinder Trolleys to shift Cylinders

Handling Cylinders

Use Cylinder Trolleys to shift Cylinders`


Handling Cylinders

Make sure that two people transport a cylinder if trolley can not be used.
Use lifting straps to improve grip.


Handling Cylinders

How should one person lift a cylinder onto a platform

Handling Sheet Materials

Guidelines for Shovelling

Keep feet wide apart. Place front foot close to shovel.

Put weight on front foot.  Use leg to push shovel.

Guidelines for Shovelling

Shift weight to rear foot.   Keep load close to body.

Turn feet in direction of throw.

Guidelines for Digging

Push spade down using leg muscle.

Slide load close to body. Ensure load is loose from ground before lifting.

Lifting heavy bags
Lift heavy and large sacks in two stages using an intermediate platform.
Recommended procedure is..


Lowering heavy bags


Depends on size, weight, distance to be covered.
Recommended procedure is..


Lifting Bulky Sacks


Single Person

Two Persons


Handling Materials without Handles




Use slings or hooks to improve grasp when loads do not have handles.


Use blocks under loads without handles to make lifting them up easier and safer.
.
Lifting & Carrying Long Objects as a Team

Handling materials using trolley

Using Mechanical Aids - Levers

Using Mechanical Aids - Levers


Using Mechanical Aids - Levers


Work Place Layout



Avoid twisting with load

Operating Power Tools



What Regulation Says ? TBOCWR Rules,1998



  Test and periodical examination of lifting gears
 ( Rule No: 70)
Lifting gear initially tested by a competent person;
A lifting gear in use is thoroughly examined once at least  in every twelve months by a competent person;
A chain in use is thoroughly examined once at least every month by a responsible person for its use;
Certificates of initial and periodical tests and examinations of loose gears;   



Lifting Gears 



Ø Good quality
ØInspected once in 3 months
ØVisual defects – 10% in 8 dia. Broken wires etc.
ØEye splices with thimbles
ØSplicing – wire rope - 3 full tucks & 2 half tucks
ØFiber rope – 4 full tucks.



Heat treatment  - Rule 72


Certificate for issue  - Rule 73



Register of periodical test, examination and certificate



Employer shall ensure that register in specified form shall be maintained and particulars of such test and examination of lifting appliances shall be entered in register
Certificate in prescribed form shall be obtained from competent person for winches, derricks, cranes, hoists, loose gear, wire ropes


Different forms for each equipment.




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