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Wednesday, 21 September 2016

Electrical safety


 Electrical safety




 Electrical safety awareness session



 Objective
 

 Electrical safety



Hazards in Electrical installations and apparatus


Hazards in Electrical installations and apparatus


Hazards in Electrical installations and apparatus



> Hazards in Electrical installations and apparatus


Hazards in Electrical installations and apparatus


Analysis



Electrical shock



Electrical shock



Electrical safety



Effect of Magnitude of shock currents



Equipment Earthing and system Neutral Earthing



Earthing


Earthing



Earthing



System protection equipments electrical installations


Lightening


Minimum clearance for live conductor



Electrical safety in Residential and Commercial installations.


Electrical safety in Residential and Commercial installations.


Conclusion


Thank you





Electrical Safety.

Electricity Is A Good Servant If We Use With Care.

It Becomes Destroyer If We Use Without Care.


Electrical Safety.



Electrical safety deals with safety from electricity, supply system, electrical appliances, plant, equipment and also safety of personnel.

Electrical hazards include shock, burns, flashovers, fires, fall and injury. Destruction of life and property.

Hazards in Electrical Installations and Apparatus.
Incidence :
 Person touches live conductor or charged conductor.
Effect:
Electric shock.
Causes:
A)Live conductor exposed.
B)Person was allowed in the clearance zone.
C)Person touched live conductor.
Preventive measures:
1)Provide insulating or earthed metallic enclosure.
2)Enclose area by fence with lock.
3)Place danger board “LIVE DON’T TOUCH”.
4)Switch off and earth before touching.

Incidence :
 Person touches faulted structure or any metal part.
Effect:
Electric shock.
Causes:
A)Structure\Equipment was not earthed and earth fault was not detected by protection system.
Preventive measures:
1)Install earthing system and earth the structure..

2)Improve the protection.


Incidence :
 Person places ladder or metal rod near live conductor.
Effect:
Electric shock, flashover, fault.
Causes:
A)Person was allowed to take metal ladder in switchyard.
B)The person was not aware of dangers because electricity in bus bar.
Preventive measures:
1)Provide fence, lock and permit system for entry.
2)Place danger caution notice.

3)Train persons for safety.


Incidence :
 Person using tool cuts insulation of live cable.
Effect:
Electric shock, fault, fire.
Causes:
A)Under ground cable was without protective RCC slab.
B)Danger signs not provided.
C)Digger and supervisor not aware.
Preventive measures:
1)Provide RCC slab or Hume pipe over power cable.
2)Place caution sign at regular intervals along the run.

3)Supervisor\Diggers should be given clearance only after ensuring safety.

Incidence :
1) Rotating shafts without cover.
2)Unearthed rotating equipment body
.
Effect:
Accident
Electric shock.
Causes:
A)Rotating parts not provided with protective covers.
B)Leakage through equipment insulation.
C)Sparking\arcing in equipment..
D)Body not earthed.
Preventive measures:
1)Provide Cover and fence.
2)Improve protection system.
3)Earth equipment body.
4)Check insulation resistance during periodic maintenance.

Analysis


 Fatality due to Electrical : 23%

 Fire Due to Electrical     : 29%

Electrical Shock.

What is electric shock ?
Electric shock is a sudden stimulation of the nervous system of human body by flow of electric current through a part of the body.
1)Primary shock: may produce direct physiological harm.
2)Secondary shock: it will not produce direct physiological harm, but it is uneasy and cause involuntary muscle reaction.

ELECTRIC SHOCK


* Shock is felt when electric charge complete the circuit through human body.

Electrical Safety. 

Resistance of Human Body Paths.
1)Dry Skin  10-50 Mega Ohms
2)Wet Skin  1000 Ohms
3)Hand To Foot    500-600 Ohms
4)Ear To Ear  100 Ohms
-Wet walls, wet insulation are Dangerous.
-Ear to Ear shock is most Dangerous.
-Hand to hand shock is very Dangerous.
-Shock not involving heart,brain and involving only remote skin is less dangerous.  


Effect of Magnitude of

 Shock Currents.


1)Below 10 mA  Mild sensation but not painful.

2)10 mA to 15 mA  Painful shock but Muscles still   in control.

3)15 mA to 20 mA  Muscle control affected.

4)20 mA to 40 mA  Muscle contractions, Breathing   affected.

5)40 mA to 80 mA  Irregular heartbeat(fibrillation)  and possible death.

6)Above 100 mA  Severe Burns, stoppage of Heart,   Death certain.  

Equipment Earthing and

 System Neutral Earthing.

Equipment Earthing ensures safety and the earth fault current flows through the earthing and may readily cause operation of fuse or an earth fault relay and circuit breaker.
Neutral Earthing ensures stable neutral, freedom from arcing grounds and safe phase to ground voltages.,

SYSTEM PROTECTION EQUIPMENTS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS


Miniature Circuit – Breakers (MCBs).
Residual Current Protective Devices.
Fuse System.

Protective Relays for entire electrical equipment ( Over current ,Short circuit, Earth Fault, Earth leakage relays etc).


Lightening


Precautions
 Lightening Arrester Should Be Used With All Tall Structure.
 Angle of Protection Should Cover Entire Structure.
 Material Used for Lightening Rod in tryrate metrosal Which Offer Lesser Resistance
+

Electrical Safety in Residential    and Commercial Installations.


Wiring and Fittings
1.All outlets in electrical appliance shall be of 3 pin type.
2.All single pole switches shall be on the phase conductor.
3.Flexible cables shall not be used  in places where they are liable to be subjected to mechanical damage.
4.Drying the clothes non metallic ropes should be used.

The appliances are classified in three categories.
Class I appliance:
Protection against shock does not depend on basic insulation. The accessible metallic parts are connected to the protective earthing.
Class II appliance:
Double insulation or reinforced Insulation.
Class III appliance:
Operates at very low voltages(less than 32 V).



CONCLUSION


Safety may not always be the shortest way.


But a sure way.

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